In India, development of fuel cells is primarily supported by the MNES (Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources). Several universities and research organizations are involved in the areas of fuel cells, reformers, and hydrogen storage.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd is involved in the development of PAFCs and plans to develop a 50-kW stack. TERI has in the past demonstrated the use of digester gas (biogas) for generating electricity from a 2.5-kW PAFC stack imported from ERC (Energy Research Corporation), USA. In addition, MNES has funded the import of a 200-kW PAFC system made by the ONSI to evaluate its operation.
SPIC-SF (SPIC Science Foundation) is working on PEM fuel cells and has developed stacks. They have also demonstrated a fuel-cell battery hybrid vehicle using a 10-kW PEM power plant.
Work on an MCFC stack is underway at TERI and the Central Electrochemical Research Institute. TERI has tested the operation of an MCFC monocell on simulated coal gas. Development of a kW-level stack is currently underway with the aim of integrating it with a coal gasifier.
Work on developing a DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) is underway at IISc (Indian Institute of Science). In addition, research on SOFC is being done at IISc and CGCRI (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute). Research and development on metal hydride storage is ongoing at BHU (Banaras Hindu University).