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Total Energy Used

# India’s energy requirement by 2030 has been projected at over 400 GW, which combines the current installed energy capacity of Japan, South Korea and Australia. (World Wildlife Fund, Apr 2008)


India Coal Reserves

# India is the third largest producer of coal in the world.
# Coal accounts for about 67% of the total energy consumption in the country.
# India has about 250 billion T of coal (2006 data) – Noncoking coal reserves aggregate 85 per cent while coking coal reserves are 15%. Out of 250 billion T, proven reserves are about 115 BT, indicated reserves 132 and the inferred reserves about 40 BT. (EIA data says India has about 102 billion tons of recoverable coal reserves – 2003 data)
# Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhatisgarh contain the bulk of reserves – about 175 Billion T
# Indian coal has high ash content (15-45%) and low calorific value.
# Present rate of production around 450 million T per year ( “The demand for coal will reach two billion tonnes mark by 2016-17,” Coal India Ltd (CIL) Chairman Partha S Bhattacharyya said in Sep 2008. He also said “The demand (for coal) by power sector for 2011-12 has been pegged at around 730 million tonnes but the production target for the 11th Five Year Plan is at around 680 million tonnes”)
# The energy derived from coal in India is about twice that of energy derived from oil, whereas world-wide, energy derived from coal is about 30% less than energy derived from oil. (Wikipedia)
# India and China at present account for 45 per cent of the total coal use in the world and will be responsible for over three-quarter of the increase by 2030.

Most data given above are for 2006

(Useful link on coal reserves and production )

Coal Consumption Per Year

# About 370 million T per year

Natural Gas

India Total Natural Gas Reserves

According to OGJ, India had 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2007.

The total gas production in India was about 31,400 mcm in 2002-03 (approx 1 tcf) compared with 2,358 mcm in 1980-81. At this production level, India’s reserves are likely to last for around 29 years; that is significantly longer than the 19 years estimated for oil reserves.

Almost 70% of India’s natural gas reserves are found in the Bombay High basin and in Gujarat. Offshore gas reserves are also located in Andhra Pradesh coast (Krishna Godavari Basin) and Tamil Nadu coast (Cauvery Basin). Onshore reserves are located in Gujarat and the North Eastern states (Assam and Tripura). (Here’s a nice article on India’s natural gas status); Oh, by the way, it is estimated that India has 2,000 trillion cubic feet of methane / natural gas in the form of gas hydrates, though whether these can be exploited is a different question all together.

Natural Gas Consumption
Dry natural gas production & consumption (2003) – 0.96 tcf (consumption equalled production in this year) (see the trends for this over the years from here – )

Total LPG usage per year
Approximately 10 MT in 2005 (worldwide consumption in 2005 – 215 MT) {interesting fact: acc to data presented here, industrial usage of LPG has a lion’s share in consumption – abuot 70% and is growing at enormous speed – 50-70% during the 2005-08 period)


Biofuels contribution to energy

Total ethanol production
53 million gallons of fuel ethanol (2007 data), 502 million gallons of total ethanol(2006 data), (bot the above data from this useful link that gives lots of data for US ethanol and some for world ethanol)

Ethanol production of India is likely to attain a CAGR of slightly over 2% during the period 2008-2017. Increased ethanol use is expected to supersede the production during the forecasted period. Domestic ethanol consumption in India is projected to expand at a CAGR of around 6.5% during 2008-2017.

Total biodiesel production
India’s total biodiesel requirement is projected to grow to 3.6 Million Metric Tons in 2011-12, with the positive performance of the domestic automobile industry.

Large biofuel companies – ethanol and biodiesel companies

Large biodiesel refineries in india

India’s first biodiesel plant started production in Kakinada, a city in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The facility, owned by Naturol Bioenergy, is expected to produce 30 million gallons of biodiesel per year obtained from Jathropa and using Belgian technology – Oct 2007

AE Biofuels Inc., an energy company that is developing and constructing biodiesel and ethanol facilities worldwide, has completed the construction of a biodiesel facility with a nameplate capacity of 50 million gallons per year located in Kakinada, India, and has commenced the construction of a glycerin refinery adjacent to the biodiesel facility – Jan 2008

Indian Oil Imports
* Crude oil accounts for around 35 per cent of the country’s total import bill. (2008 data)
* India’s oil import bill is about $50 billion per year
* India imports about 120 MT of crude every year, and about 15 MT of petroleum products every year (2008 data estimates)
* India has only 0.3% of world’s known oil reserves – According to Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ), India had 5.6 billion barrels of proven oil reserves as of January 2007, the second-largest amount in the Asia-Pacific region (behind China) (source, PDF)


India total gasoline usage per year

Approx 13 million T per annum – 2006 data

Total liquid petroleum products production & consumption
2003 data (thousands of barrels per day) – production – 815, production of crude oil alone – 660, consumption of all petro liquid products – 2320 (see the trend here – )


Total Diesel Usage Per Year
Diesel consumption in India was approx 52 million T in 2006-07 and expected to be about 67 MT by 2011-12 (here’s some data on consumption break-up of petro products for 2004 – half year data)
Diesel consumption in India is approximate 40% of the total petro products consumption

Offshore Drilling in India

India Major Refineries & Refining Capacities

Major Refineries (capacity, bbl/d) (source – Energy Info Administration, USA)
Reliance Petroleum: Jamnagar (660,000). IOC: Koyali (185,100), Mathura (156,000), Panipat (120,000). Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd: Mangalore (180,000). Hindustan Petroleum Corporation: Vishakapatnam (164,250), Mahul (132,000). Kochi Refineries Ltd: Ambalamugal (152,000). Chennai Petroleum Corporation: Madras (130,660). Bharat Petroleum Company Ltd: Mahul (120,000).

Major Oil & Gas Companies

Oil and Natural Gas
Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL)
Indian Oil Corporation (IOC)
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)
ONGC Videsh
Oil India Ltd (OIL)
Reliance Industries Ltd

India Oil & Gas Organizations

Petroleum: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC); Oil India Ltd. (OIL); Indian Oil Corporation (IOC); Reliance Industries (private). Natural Gas: Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL)

Major Oil / Gas Ports

Oil – Bombay, Cochin, Haldia, Kandla, Madras, Vizag; LNG – Hazira, Dahej

Wind Energy

Large wind energy companies
Suzlon, Enercon, NEPC, Vestas India, GE Energy

Large Wind Farms in India
Suzlon Energy is setting up a 150 MW wind power project in Sangli district of Maharashtra for Reliance Energy, which is part of the Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. The project will be completed in two phases, and when complete will supply 380 million units per year, all of which REL will use for its distribution business in Bombay. In the next 2-3 years REL will set up 500 MW of wind power in various states, further boosting the domestic wind power scene. NTPC is also expected to give due importance to wind power in its, “plans to generate 1,000 megawatts of power through renewable energy sources by 2017”. (Mar 2007)

At Dhule, Maharashtra, Suzlon Energy is building one of the world’s largest wind farms with a capacity of 1,000MW. (Mar 2009)

Today, the country has over 8,700 megawatt (MW) of installed capacity. The country has also set a target to add another 10,000 MW in the 11th plan. (Aug 2008)

A study found that wind energy – while accounting for 6 per cent of the total installed power capacity in the country – only contributes 1.6 of the country’s power. On average, across the country, the PLF of wind energy has increased marginally from 13.5 per cent in 2003-04 to 15 per cent, but there are states such as Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, where wind energy is functioning at a PLF of less than 10 per cent. (Aug 2008)

Solar Energy

A good page on solar energy in India – from Wikipedia

Large solar energy installations in india
5 GW Integrated Solar Plant Planned in Gujarat. Would be one of the largest power projects regardless of source, the 5 GW “Integrated Solar City” which was recently discussed by the Clinton Foundation and to be located in the western Indian state of Gujarat is such an increase in scale for solar power – Sep 2008 news

Large solar energy companies
Tata BP Solar, XL Telecom, Moser Baer, WebelSL Solar and Titan are among those companies with bigger presence and in the process of further expansion. Goldstone Infratech, another Hyderabad-based company, recently announced its decision to diversify into solar energy by setting up a manufacturing facility with a capacity for 40 mw per annum. In the Fab City, Titan Energy Systems, Surana Ventures, Neotech Solutions are among those along with Nanotech Solutions, which is considering a thin solar cell fabrication facility requiring a much larger level of investment. Solar Semiconductor, citing huge orders, announced its intent to expand their manufacturing capacity from 50 Mw to 200 mw. Some of the other companies like Applied Materials are evaluating India for technology support (Apr 2008 news)

BP-Tata joint venture.
Moser-Baer signed up for a thin film Si plant provided by Applied Materials.
Solar Semiconductor Pvt in Hyderabad, AP

The amount of solar energy produced in India is merely 0.5% compared to other energy resources. The Grid-interactive solar power as of June 2007 was merely 2.12 MW. Government-funded solar energy in India only accounted for approximately 6.4 megawatt-years of power as of 2005.

2009 data re installed capacity of solar PV – About 66 MW of aggregate capacity is installed for various applications comprising 1 million industrial PV systems – 80% of which is solar lanterns, home/street lighting systems and solar water pumps, etc; for 2005, the solar PV output was just 6.37 MW

By 2006 over 2,400 off-grid villages in India had received solar thermal and photovoltaic systems.

Geothermal Energy in India

India has a geothermal power potential of 10,600MW, but the country is yet to see a single commissioned project that harnesses this technology.

The major regions where geothermal potential is present are: Himalayas, Cambay, West coast, and Godavari.

Wave Energy in India

The potential along the 6000 Km of coast is about 40,000 MW. This energy is however less intensive than what is available in more northern and southern latitudes (a nice white paper on Indian wave energy here PDF – this is an old one, but a good one).

In India the research and development activity for exploring wave energy started at the Ocean Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras in 1982. Primary estimates indicate that the annual wave energy potential along the Indian coast is between 5 MW to 15 MW per meter, thus a theoretical potential for a coast line of nearly 6000 KW works out to 40000-60000 MW approximately. However, the realistic and economical potential is likely to be considerably less.

Tidal Energy in India

Since India is surrounded by sea on three sides, its potential to hamess tidal energy has been recognised by the Government of India. Potential sites for tidal power development have already been located. The most attractive locations are the Gulf of Cambay and the Culf of Kachchh on the west coast where the maximum tidal range is 11 m and 8 m with average tidal range of 6.77 m and 5.23 m respectively. The Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans in West Bengal also has good locations for small scale tidal power development. The maximum tidal range in Sunderbans is approximately 5 m with an average tidal range of 2.97 m. The identified economic tidal power potential in India is of the order of 8000-9000 MW with about 7000 MW in the Gulf of Cambay about 1200 MW in the Gulf of Kachchh and less than 100 MW in Sundarbans. The Kachchh Tidal Power Project with an installed capacity of about 900 MW is estimated to cost about Rs. 1460/- crore generating lectricity at about 90 paise per unit. The techno-economic feasibility report is now being examined (Source)

The identified economic tidal power potential in India is 8,000 to 9,000 MW, according to Dipwen Boruah of IT Power India, an environmental and renewable energy consultancy. Even though we boast of a long coastline of 7,517 km, tidal energy cannot be produced everywhere. It is extremely site specific, requires mean tidal differences greater than 4 m, and also favorable topographical conditions, such as estuaries or certain types of bays in order to bring down costs of dams, etc. Therefore, the government has identified three suitable sites in India — the Gulf of Cambay (7,000 MW), the Gulf of Kutch (1,200 MW), and the Sundarbans (<100MW) — for production of tidal energy. (Source – this is an excellent link for understanding the global happenings in tidal energy)

The country’s first tidal power generation project is coming up at Durgaduani Creek of the Sundarbans. The 3.75 mw capacity Durgaduani Creek tidal energy project is a technology demonstration project and will span over an area of 4.5 km. (Oct 2008 data). India also has good potential for tidal power generation in Gujarat and some parts of Sundarbans in West Bengal.

Hydro-electricity in India
* Consumption (2003) – 68.5 billion kWh (source – this looks like an excellent resource for lots of global energy stats; see this page for all energy stats)
* Estimated annual energy potential from hydro-electric sources is around 90000 MW while we are currently producing only 18000 MW (2006 data)

Electricity in India

According to a McKinsey study ‘Powering India: The Road to 2017’, if India is to grow at 8 percent for the next ten years, its power requirement may rise from 120 GW to 315 to 335 GW by 2017, requiring an investment of $600 billion on adding the required capacity.

Total installed capacity – approx 145000 MW (2006 data)
Electrification rate – 44%
People without electricity- 575 mill
People with electricity- 480 mill
(Indian govt has announced plans to provide electricity to the entire population by 2012; this would require a minimum addition of about 70000 MW)
Electricity consumption was 588 billion kwH in 2004
Electricity production 630 billion kwH in 2004
Electricity consumption increased at the rate of about 65% in the last one decade (from 1997-2007) and is projected to grow at about 8-10% every year until 2020, one of the highest in the world
Electricity generation (billion kWh, 2005)
Total – 590
Hydroelectric – 84
Nuclear – 17
Conventional thermal – 487
(see how these numbers have changed from this link – )

Installed capacity ( in GW)
Total – 118
Hydroelectric – 31
Nuclear – 2.8
Geothermal/Solar/Wind/Biomass – 3.81
Conventional thermal – 80.9
(See how the above numbers have changed over the years from this link – )

Other interesting data

The consumption pattern of petroleum products in India is as follows:
* Transport (Petrol, Diesel, CNG, Aviation Fuel) : 51%
* Industry (Petrol, Diesel, Fuel Oil, Naphtha, Natural Gas): 14%
* Commercial & Others : 13%
* Domestic (LPG & Kerosene): 18%
* Agriculture (Diesel): 4%
(Source: PCRA – By the way, this link is quite a useful link with lots of data on fossil fuel conservation efforts in India)

* Total demand of all petro products in India is approx 135 MT (2008)
* Doubling of consumption of crude oil from 57.75 million tonnes in 1991 to 116 million tonnes in 2005.
* 450 MMT out of 1100 MMT of CO2 emissions in India from fossil fuels (POL).
* Projected growth rate of petroleum products for India is 2.4% per annum till 2030.
* Japan – 9.2 times more energy efficient per $1000 of GDP compared to India.
* 3.67 million biogas plants in India (2003-04 data) – not sure about this, got to check again
* India has an estimated biogas potential of 17 GW
* India’s total commercial primary energy consumption has gone up from 376.1 million tons (oil equivalent) in 2004 to 387.3 million tons in 2005, which is an increase of 3.0%.
* India Uranium reserves – about 60-70000 T, while its thorium reserves are over 3,50,000 T (2006 data) (Source – this is an excellent post with lots of India energy data)
* 65% of total rural energy consumption is met from fuel woods.
* Over 70 million tonnes of animal dung is burnt every year for energy purposes in India. Now, let me try some small calculations – Taking approx 100 gallons to a T of animal dung ( this is approx what you get if you completely gasify the dnug and process it into liquid fuels), that would be 7 billion oil gallons equivalent of dung is used. India consumes about 120 MT of oil per year, so that would be about 35 billion gallons per year…hmmm…that’s interesting – cow dung usage constitutes about 20% of our total oil energy usage. Hey cows, thank you very much!
* Anywhere between 60-100000 villages in India do not have electricity at all (2008 estimate). Can you believe it!
* India Energy-related CO2 Emissions – 1,112.8 million metric tons, of which Coal (67%), Oil (27%), Natural Gas (6%) (2004 data)
* India crude oil distribution capacity – 2.25 million barrels per day
* Total energy consumption (2004) – 15.4 quadrillion BTUs – coal – 53%, oil – 33%, natural gas – 8%, hydroelectricity – 5%, nuclear – 1%, Other renewables – negligible

Some excellent data resources

1. India Energy Data from Energy Information Admin, USA (see the summary at the end, excellent stuff)

Interesting web resources
  • C2V – CO2 to Value – a comprehensive web resource providing insights on opportunities in converting CO2 into a range of useful products – fuels, chemicals, food & materials
  • All about CO2 – CO2 Q&A – a unique resource providing answers to 100+ questions on the most talked about gas today.

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