Biomass gasification is a process where materials are transformed by thermal decomposition under partially oxygenated conditions to generate syn-gas for power generation. It seems to be a powerful technique where energy can be produced in a sustainable way along with valuable products such as green oil and biochar but it is multi step process where bottlenecks continuously arises at every step of the production pathway.
The most commonly encountered limitations are batch to batch variation in energy content, purification of the syngas, contaminants influence in the performance of the engines, ash and biochar disposals, toxic gas emissions and operational efficiency of the gas engines and mandatory modifications required to make the engines energy effective.
In addition to these prime technical problems, others notable hindrances are insufficient capacity of the stakeholders and inadequate institutional and policy framework at the national, regional and local levels and limited access to financing and lack of interest on part of the state electricity boards (SEBs) in promoting biomass power generation etc. In India, conditions are further complicate by lack of working capital, limited interest in power projects, lack of effective regulatory framework and absence of effective information dissemination etc.
In spite of the limitations, the technology continues to gain acceptance. Its potential to meet the energy demands on a flexible scale makes a robust move to outweigh the magnitude of limitations associated with it.