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This post provides an overview of likely trends in the Indian EV charging scene for the 2020-2030 timeline
Different countries follow their unique charging protocols suitable to their EV needs
- CHAdeMO – Japan
- Combined Charging System – Germany
- GB/T – China
Charging Infrastructure at Present in India
- India Adopted international standards and developed an India specific New standard called Bharat Charging.
- Development of Charging station infrastructure plays a major role in the development of EV eco system. The Committee on standardization of protocol for Electric Vehicles (EV) Charging Infrastructure has come out with recommendations entailing specifications for AC and DC charging for electric vehicles.
- These standards are called – Bharat EV Charger AC-001 and Bharat EV Charger DC-001. India will deploy both CHAdeMO and Combined Charging System (CCS) fast-charging technologies, besides the existing Bharat Standard, at its public electric vehicle charging stations.
- Bharat EV Charger DC-001 specifications recommend the China based GB/T connector standard. Also Indian electric cars and electric buses use the GB/T port on the vehicles for DC fast charging.
- The main reason to adopt GB/T connector can be the cost compared to CHAdeMO or CCS. The focus of global OEM companies (car companies) on Asian market can also be a reason.
- Tata power has 85 charging points. Plans to setup 300 fast charging stations.
- EESL has commissioned 300 AC and 170 DC chargers across India
- Fortum has 62 DC fast chargers in India. The company will install 50 kW CCS/CHAdeMO DC fast public charging stations. in partnership with MG motors.
- NTPC has installed 57 charging stations and plans to take the number to 400 by 2020
- The ratio of public slow charging to fast charging is about 5:1 while the required ratio is 2:1.
- Under Phase-II of Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India), 317 EV charging stations have been allotted in Maharashtra, 266 in Andhra Pradesh, 256 in Tamil Nadu, 228 in Gujarat, 205 in Rajasthan, 207 in Uttar Pradesh, 172 in Karnataka, 159 in Madhya Pradesh, 141 in West Bengal, 138 in Telangana and 131 in Kerala.
- Meanwhile, 72 EV charging stations will be set up in Delhi, 70 in Chandigarh, 50 in Haryana, 40 in Meghalaya, 37 in Bihar, 29 in Sikkim, 25 each in Jammu & Kashmir and Chhattisgarh, 20 in Assam, 18 in Odisha and 10 each in Uttarakhand, Puducherry and Himachal Pradesh.
Timelines for AC vs DC Charging
- The AC Chargers will flourish around for at least 5-8 years as they are very much essential to kick-start the Indian EV industry.
- The electric two wheelers and three wheelers already available in India is based on AC charging. Some Electric cars have on board AC charging attached to them.
- The cost parameter is a huge advantage for AC chargers in a cost driven market like India. Ac chargers are much cheaper and manageable when compared to DC fast charging.
- About 7000 electric cars running in India presently are made with systems imported from China and they follow GB/T standards. All these vehicles have batteries that require almost 3 hours to fully charge. Hence high capacity chargers (50 kW) are of no use for these vehicles.
- The Ministry of Power has called for sourcing 4,000 EV chargers through an open tender from one of its PSU’s
- EESL plans to procure 1,000 EVs immediately in Phase 1 of the exercise and 9,000 EVs later in Phase 2 of this tender
- The Phase 1 for 1000 EVs are being procured for use in various Central Government Ministries in India
- Phase 2 exercise for sourcing 9,000 EVs is aimed at leasing the vehicles to various fleet operators.
- Investments in AC infrastructure will become stranded assets once the large shifts to cars capable of faster charging—automakers have announced that higher-power EVs across the cost spectrum will hit the market in the few years.
- While lower-level AC charging is cheaper now, the price of DC technology is dropping, and its benefits will quickly outweigh those of AC technology.
- High-power DC chargers will be able to service multiple vehicles at the same time. And is expected to gain momentum by the second half of the decade.(2025 and beyond)
- That means far fewer units will be needed, so DC chargers will be a more cost-effective choice even at a higher per-unit price.
- The Flash Charging Technology is fairly new to the Market. It has a major time-saving advantage by its side.
- It is expected that the flash charging in India will gain popularity in the final quarter of this decade. It is fairly costlier and will be economical once the EV industry gains its momentum
- India plans to implement AC and DC charging stations which include both the global protocols and its own protocols(Bharat), developed based on the available global protocols.
- AC charging is significant for India as the primary charging infrastructure for the next few years.
- DC/Fast charging would become conventional in India later this decade, assisted by an increase in electric vehicles and reduction in cost for DC/Fast charging.
Know more on the EV charging ecosystem in India from: Components of EVSE | Bharath DC001 | Bharat AC001 | EVSE Growth Trends | Battery Swapping Growth Trends | EVSE Cost components | EVSE installation costs | Battery swapping in India | Indian EVSE Stakeholders | Charger Standards | Current Indian EVSE status | EVSE Challenges | EVSE during 2020-2030 |
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