Emerging Business Models in Solar PV Power Production - India Renewable Energy Consulting – Solar, Biomass, Wind, Cleantech
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As the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry matures, the advent of innovative business models is reshaping the landscape of solar power production. As of early 2023, these new business models are not only making solar power more accessible and cost-effective but are also driving growth and sustainability in the sector.

The Evolution of Solar Business Models

The evolution of business models in solar PV power production reflects the industry’s response to changing market dynamics, technological advancements, and policy frameworks. From traditional models based on direct sales and ownership to newer, more flexible arrangements, the industry is witnessing a paradigm shift in how solar power is produced, distributed, and consumed.

Utility-Scale Solar Projects: The Traditional Backbone 

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Utility-scale solar projects, involving large-scale solar farms selling electricity to the grid, have long been the backbone of the solar industry. These projects benefit from economies of scale and often involve long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) with utilities or governments, providing a stable revenue stream and investment security.

Community Solar: Democratizing Access to Solar Energy 

Community solar models are emerging as a powerful tool for democratizing access to solar energy. These models allow multiple consumers to share the benefits of a single solar project, making solar accessible to those who may not have suitable rooftops or the capital for individual installations. Community solar projects are particularly popular in urban areas and among residential consumers.

Rooftop Solar Leasing: Reducing Upfront Costs 

Rooftop solar leasing is another innovative business model gaining traction. Under this model, a third party installs solar panels on a consumer’s property and leases them back, often at rates lower than the local utility. This model eliminates the need for significant upfront investment and maintenance concerns, making it an attractive option for residential and small commercial users.

Solar-as-a-Service: The Service-Oriented Approach 

Solar-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a business model where companies offer solar power as a service rather than a product. Under this model, the service provider owns, operates, and maintains the solar installation, while the consumer pays for the solar energy used, typically at a rate lower than the grid. This model is gaining popularity in both residential and commercial sectors.

Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs): A Win-Win for Producers and Consumers 

PPAs are agreements between a solar power producer and a consumer (often a business or a utility) to purchase electricity at a predetermined price for a set period. This model provides security for both the producer and the consumer, ensuring a stable market for solar power and predictable energy costs for the consumer.

Net Metering: Encouraging Self-Consumption and Surplus Sale 

Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid. This model encourages self-consumption of solar power while allowing owners to sell surplus energy, making solar installations more economically viable.

Challenges and Future Prospects

Despite the promise, these emerging business models face challenges, including regulatory hurdles, market competition, and the need for consumer education. However, the future prospects remain bright, with continuous innovation and supportive policies likely to drive further growth in this sector.


In conclusion, the emergence of diverse business models in solar PV power production is a testament to the industry’s adaptability and innovation. These models are not only expanding the market for solar power but are also making it more accessible and sustainable. As the world continues to embrace renewable energy, these innovative business models will play a crucial role in the solar industry’s growth and evolution.

About Narasimhan Santhanam (Narsi)

Narsi, a Director at EAI, Co-founded one of India's first climate tech consulting firm in 2008.

Since then, he has assisted over 250 Indian and International firms, across many climate tech domain Solar, Bio-energy, Green hydrogen, E-Mobility, Green Chemicals.

Narsi works closely with senior and top management corporates and helps then devise strategy and go-to-market plans to benefit from the fast growing Indian Climate tech market.


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