Green Hydrogen Storage - What are the key innovations for green hydrogen storage in tanks, cascades, and onships? - India Renewable Energy Consulting – Solar, Biomass, Wind, Cleantech
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Themes and Topics

  • Ammonia as hydrogen carrier
  • Composite materials for hydrogen storage
  • Glass microspheres for hydrogen storage
  • Hydrogen storage companies.
  • Hydrogen storage safety
  • Hydrogen storage standards
  • Hydrogen storage tanks
  • Liquid hydrogen storage
  • LOHC for hydrogen storage
  • Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage
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    What are the key innovations for green hydrogen storage in tanks, cascades, and onships?

    The storage of green hydrogen is crucial for its viability as an energy carrier. Innovations in hydrogen storage technologies, especially for tanks, cascades, and on ships, are aimed at improving efficiency, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Here’s an overview of the key innovations and considerations in these areas:

    Material Innovations in Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    • Advanced Composites: High-strength, lightweight composite materials are being developed for high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks. These materials must withstand the pressures required for hydrogen storage (up to 700 bar for light-duty vehicles) while minimizing weight and maximizing durability.
    • Metal Hydrides: Metal hydrides offer a way to store hydrogen at lower pressures, absorbing hydrogen into a solid material and releasing it when needed. Innovations focus on finding materials that can store hydrogen densely, release it at practical temperatures, and are cost-effective and abundant.
    • Glass Microspheres and Other Nanomaterials: Research into glass microspheres and nanomaterials aims to store hydrogen at high densities and release it at controlled rates. These materials could offer significant safety and efficiency improvements for hydrogen storage.

    Cost of Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    • Composite Materials: The use of advanced composite materials, while reducing weight and increasing safety, also increases the cost of hydrogen storage tanks. Efforts to reduce these costs include developing more cost-effective manufacturing processes and finding cheaper alternative materials that do not compromise on performance.
    • Economies of Scale: As the green hydrogen market grows, economies of scale are expected to reduce the costs of storage tanks significantly. Increased production, standardized designs, and improved manufacturing techniques will contribute to lower costs.

    Standards for Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    • International Standards: Standards such as ISO 19880 for hydrogen fuelling stations and ISO 14687 for hydrogen fuel quality play critical roles in ensuring the interoperability, safety, and performance of hydrogen storage solutions. These standards cover aspects from design and manufacturing to testing and operation of hydrogen storage tanks.
    • National Regulations: Countries are also developing their own regulations and standards to govern the safe storage, transportation, and use of hydrogen. These regulations are crucial for ensuring public safety and facilitating the widespread adoption of hydrogen technologies.

    Safety Requirements for Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    • Pressure Resistance and Leak Prevention: High-pressure hydrogen storage tanks are designed to be extremely robust, with multiple layers of protection against leaks and ruptures. This includes the use of burst disks, pressure relief devices, and advanced leak detection systems.
    • Impact and Fire Resistance: Tanks and storage systems must withstand physical impacts and high temperatures without failing. Materials and designs that offer high levels of thermal and impact resistance are crucial for preventing hydrogen release in accidents.
    • Monitoring and Control Systems: Advanced monitoring systems are being developed to continuously check the integrity of hydrogen storage tanks and the purity of the stored hydrogen. These systems can alert operators to potential issues before they become safety hazards.

    Innovations for Hydrogen Storage on Ships

    • Liquid Hydrogen Storage: Storing hydrogen in liquid form at -253°C offers a high-density storage solution for transportation by ship. Innovations in insulation materials and cryogenic tank designs are aimed at minimizing hydrogen evaporation and maximizing storage efficiency.
    • LOHC Systems: Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) are being explored for shipping hydrogen. These systems chemically bind hydrogen to a liquid carrier, which can be transported at ambient conditions and then dehydrogenated at the destination to release hydrogen.
    • Ammonia as a Hydrogen Carrier: Ammonia (NH3) can be used to store and transport hydrogen efficiently. Innovations focus on the safe, efficient handling of ammonia and on technologies for ammonia cracking at the destination to release hydrogen.


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    University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) – Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Hydrogen Storage Tanks: UCLA researchers have been working on developing lightweight, high-strength composite materials that can safely store hydrogen at high pressures. Their research focuses on improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of hydrogen storage tanks for various applications.

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) – Metal Hydride-based Hydrogen Storage Systems: MIT has been conducting research on metal hydride-based hydrogen storage systems, exploring novel materials and designs to enhance hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics, and reversibility. Their work aims to address the challenges associated with metal hydride storage, such as slow hydrogen uptake and release kinetics.

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    Stanford University – Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage: Researchers at Stanford University are investigating the use of nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), for hydrogen storage. Their research focuses on developing nanomaterial-based storage systems with high hydrogen storage capacity, fast kinetics, and good reversibility.

    Technical University of Denmark (DTU) – Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs): DTU researchers are studying the use of Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs) for hydrogen storage and transportation. Their research includes the development of novel LOHC materials, as well as the design and optimization of LOHC-based storage and release systems.

    University of Manchester – Ammonia as a Hydrogen Carrier: Researchers at the University of Manchester are investigating the use of ammonia (NH3) as a hydrogen carrier for energy storage and transportation. Their research focuses on developing efficient and cost-effective technologies for ammonia synthesis, storage, and hydrogen release through ammonia decomposition or direct ammonia fuel cells.


    • Hexagon Composites: Hexagon Composites is a leading manufacturer of high-pressure composite storage tanks for hydrogen, compressed natural gas (CNG), and other gases. They focus on lightweight and durable tank solutions for various applications, including automotive, transportation, and stationary storage.
    • Worthington Industries: Worthington Industries is a diversified industrial company that manufactures pressure cylinders and related products, including hydrogen storage tanks. They offer a range of solutions for hydrogen storage, including Type III and Type IV composite tanks, as well as metal cylinders.
    • Linde: Linde is a global industrial gases and engineering company that provides various solutions for hydrogen storage and transportation. They offer cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage systems for large-scale applications, as well as high-pressure gas storage solutions for automotive and industrial use.
    • Air Liquide: Air Liquide is a multinational supplier of industrial gases and services, including hydrogen storage and distribution solutions. They offer a range of products and services for hydrogen storage, including high-pressure gas cylinders, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage systems, and hydrogen refueling stations.
    • McPhy Energy: McPhy Energy is a French company specializing in hydrogen production, storage, and distribution solutions. They provide innovative hydrogen storage solutions based on solid-state metal hydrides and offer cascades for storing and dispensing hydrogen in various applications.
    • Chart Industries: Chart Industries is a global manufacturer of equipment for the industrial gas, energy, and biomedical industries. They offer a range of cryogenic storage and transportation solutions for hydrogen, including liquid hydrogen storage tanks and trailers for ships and trucks.
    • Kawasaki Heavy Industries: Kawasaki Heavy Industries is a Japanese multinational company that manufactures a wide range of products, including hydrogen-related equipment and systems. They are involved in the development of hydrogen storage and transportation technologies, including liquid hydrogen storage systems for ships and other applications.
    • Hydrogenious LOHC Technologies: Hydrogenious LOHC Technologies is a German company specializing in Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) technology for hydrogen storage and transportation. They offer solutions for storing hydrogen in a liquid carrier and releasing it when needed, including systems for ships and other transportation modes.
    • Case Studies:
      • Toyota’s Hydrogen Society: Toyota has been a pioneer in hydrogen fuel cell technology and has invested in various hydrogen storage solutions, including high-pressure tanks for its Mirai fuel cell vehicle.
      • H2RES Project: A collaborative effort between European partners to demonstrate the feasibility of using renewable energy sources to produce and store hydrogen for grid balancing and energy storage applications.
    • Conclusion:
      • Green hydrogen storage is a crucial aspect of the transition to a low-carbon economy, with research efforts focused on enhancing safety, cost-effectiveness, and scalability.
      • Collaboration between universities, companies, and governments is essential to drive innovation and overcome challenges in hydrogen storage technology.
      • Continued advancements in storage solutions will play a key role in realizing the full potential of green hydrogen as a clean energy carrier.
    • Safety concerns: Ensuring the safe handling and storage of hydrogen due to its high flammability and potential for embrittlement of materials.
    • Cost-effectiveness: Developing storage technologies that are economically viable, considering factors such as material costs, infrastructure requirements, and energy efficiency.
    • Scalability: Designing storage systems that can be scaled up to meet the growing demand for hydrogen across different sectors, from transportation to industrial applications.

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    About Narasimhan Santhanam (Narsi)

    Narsi, a Director at EAI, Co-founded one of India's first climate tech consulting firm in 2008.

    Since then, he has assisted over 250 Indian and International firms, across many climate tech domain Solar, Bio-energy, Green hydrogen, E-Mobility, Green Chemicals.

    Narsi works closely with senior and top management corporates and helps then devise strategy and go-to-market plans to benefit from the fast growing Indian Climate tech market.


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