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The current prominent battery chemistries and key drivers shaping battery chemistries


Last updated: Feb 2020 by Narasimhan Santhanam



This posevnext-logo-v-smallt is a part of EV Next’s EV Perspectives.

EV Nexta division of EAI, is a leading market intelligence & strategic consulting firm for the Indian e-mobility sector.


 

Introduction

The chemistry of Li-ion battery is a topic of significant interest and importance in the energy storage domain today, as the right chemistry can provide both the performance that the market desires at a cost the market can bear.

This blog post provides an overview of the prominent Li-ion battery chemistries and also provides inputs on the possible trends in these chemistries for the 2020-2030 timeline.

The common types of lithium-ion chemistries are

  1. Lithium-Cobalt Oxide Battery
  2. Lithium-Titanate Battery
  3. Lithium-Iron Phosphate Battery
  4. Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery
  5. Lithium-Manganese Oxide Battery
  • The five types of lithium batteries listed above are established commercially. There are many other chemistries that are under the research phase in lithium batteries. 
  • The main thing to be noted is that each chemistry has different energy density, power density, reliability and safety. One can choose battery chemistry that best suits based on the application. 
  • There are also other lithium battery chemistries that do not fall in the category of Lithium-Ion. These include Lithium Sulphur, Lithium Air and Lithium Silicone. These technologies are still emerging but hold tremendous potential.
Chemistry Application Specific Energy (Wh/kg) Cycle Life Cost per kWh ($) Thermal Runaway Temperature
Lithium-Cobalt Oxide Battery Mobiles, Laptops 150-200 500-1000 340 150
Lithium-Manganese Oxide Battery Electric powertrains 100-150 300-700 450 250
Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery  E bikes, EV 150-220 1000-2000 420 210
Lithium-Iron Phosphate Battery EVs, High current applications 90-120 2000 -3000 580 270
Lithium-Titanate Battery e-powertrains Ups, Solar storage units. 50-80 3000-7000 1005

300

  • Lithium cobalt oxide batteries (LCO) are popular because they are widely used previously in electronics like cell phones, Laptops, cameras, etc. 
  • Even though they have high energy density and low discharge rates, the main problem is that it is highly unstable when damaged. 
  • The lack of cobalt leads to the high pricing of this chemistry and difficult to be a viable option for use in EVs.
  •  Nevertheless, this high energy-dense battery powers the Tesla Roadster and Smart Fortwo electric drive (ED).
  • LiFePO4 (LFP) offers good electrochemical performance with low resistance, besides high current rating and long cycle life. The phosphate helps to stabilize the electrode against overcharging and provides a higher tolerance to heat which limits the breakdown of the material.
  •  These batteries have a wide temperature range and can operate between +60o C to −30o C and are much less likely to suffer from thermal runaway.
  • LiFePO4 has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging. This is one of the widely used chemistries in India for Electric Vehicles.
  • Lithium- Titanate can operate at very low temperatures. They have moderate energy density and rapid charge and discharge cycle. They are one of the safest batteries with good cycle life in Lithium-ion chemistry. The cost of the Lithium titanate batteries are still on the higher side which makes it difficult to be adopted for Ev usage.

chem

Major global Manufacturers of battery chemistries are

  • Panasonic
  • CATL
  • LG Chem
  • BYD
  • Samsung
    • Among these chemistries, Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery is one of the most popular chemistries that’s been manufactured by the world’s leading manufacturers like CATL, LG, Samsung, etc. 
    • The second most popular chemistry among the top manufacturers in the Lithium iron phosphate and are manufactured by CATL and BYD.
    • LG makes LFP chemistry particularly for the Indian EV industry based on the alliance with Mahindra. 
    • Panasonic, which is one of the top manufacturers of lithium batteries, makes Lithium cobalt oxide cells.

evnext-logo-v-smallKnow more on how EV Next can assist your business in your strategy for the e-mobility and electric vehicles sectors, Here

Wish to know everything about India’s EV market from one place? Check out the India EV Expert Guide, an 800 page comprehensive guide to the Indian EV marketHere



Categories: E-mobility, Electric Vehicle, Energy Storage, Energy Storage in EVs, EV Batteries

Author - Narasimhan Santhanam


Thank you for reading this post – hope it was helpful. You can connect with me at narsi@eai.in. My detailed profile here and my LinkedIn profile here

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