Last updated: Feb 2020 by Narasimhan Santhanam
This post is a part of EV Next’s EV Perspectives.
EV Next, a division of EAI, is a leading market intelligence & strategic consulting firm for the Indian e-mobility sector.
The chemistry of Li-ion battery is a topic of significant interest and importance in the energy storage domain today, as the right chemistry can provide both the performance that the market desires at a cost the market can bear.
This blog post provides an overview of the prominent Li-ion battery chemistries and also provides inputs on the possible trends in these chemistries for the 2020-2030 timeline.
The common types of lithium-ion chemistries are
- Lithium-Cobalt Oxide Battery
- Lithium-Titanate Battery
- Lithium-Iron Phosphate Battery
- Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery
- Lithium-Manganese Oxide Battery
- The five types of lithium batteries listed above are established commercially. There are many other chemistries that are under the research phase in lithium batteries.
- The main thing to be noted is that each chemistry has different energy density, power density, reliability and safety. One can choose battery chemistry that best suits based on the application.
- There are also other lithium battery chemistries that do not fall in the category of Lithium-Ion. These include Lithium Sulphur, Lithium Air and Lithium Silicone. These technologies are still emerging but hold tremendous potential.
|Chemistry||Application||Specific Energy (Wh/kg)||Cycle Life||Cost per kWh ($)||Thermal Runaway Temperature|
|Lithium-Cobalt Oxide Battery||Mobiles, Laptops||150-200||500-1000||340||150|
|Lithium-Manganese Oxide Battery||Electric powertrains||100-150||300-700||450||250|
|Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery||E bikes, EV||150-220||1000-2000||420||210|
|Lithium-Iron Phosphate Battery||EVs, High current applications||90-120||2000 -3000||580||270|
|Lithium-Titanate Battery||e-powertrains Ups, Solar storage units.||50-80||3000-7000||1005||
- Lithium cobalt oxide batteries (LCO) are popular because they are widely used previously in electronics like cell phones, Laptops, cameras, etc.
- Even though they have high energy density and low discharge rates, the main problem is that it is highly unstable when damaged.
- The lack of cobalt leads to the high pricing of this chemistry and difficult to be a viable option for use in EVs.
- Nevertheless, this high energy-dense battery powers the Tesla Roadster and Smart Fortwo electric drive (ED).
- LiFePO4 (LFP) offers good electrochemical performance with low resistance, besides high current rating and long cycle life. The phosphate helps to stabilize the electrode against overcharging and provides a higher tolerance to heat which limits the breakdown of the material.
- These batteries have a wide temperature range and can operate between +60o C to −30o C and are much less likely to suffer from thermal runaway.
- LiFePO4 has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging. This is one of the widely used chemistries in India for Electric Vehicles.
- Lithium- Titanate can operate at very low temperatures. They have moderate energy density and rapid charge and discharge cycle. They are one of the safest batteries with good cycle life in Lithium-ion chemistry. The cost of the Lithium titanate batteries are still on the higher side which makes it difficult to be adopted for Ev usage.
Major global Manufacturers of battery chemistries are
- LG Chem
- Among these chemistries, Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Battery is one of the most popular chemistries that’s been manufactured by the world’s leading manufacturers like CATL, LG, Samsung, etc.
- The second most popular chemistry among the top manufacturers in the Lithium iron phosphate and are manufactured by CATL and BYD.
- LG makes LFP chemistry particularly for the Indian EV industry based on the alliance with Mahindra.
- Panasonic, which is one of the top manufacturers of lithium batteries, makes Lithium cobalt oxide cells.
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Categories: E-mobility, Electric Vehicle, Energy Storage, Energy Storage in EVs, EV Batteries
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