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India Solar, Wind, Biomass, Biofuels – EAI

Bioenergy -Concepts

Latest News for Energy Efficiency, Solar, Wind, Biomass Power, Biofuels, Waste to Energy

Introduction

Biomass generally refers to the renewable organic matter generated by plants through photosynthesis, wherein solar energy combines with CO2 and moisture to form carbohydrates and oxygen. Materials having combustible organic matter are referred to as biomass. Biomass contains C, H and O which are oxygenated hydrocarbons. It generally contains a high level of moisture and volatile matter but has a low bulk density and calorific value. Coal is the end product of a sequence of biological and geological processes that biomass undergoes.

Biomass energy

Biomass energy is the utilization of energy stored in organic matter. It is humanity’s oldest external source of energy, dating back to prehistoric man’s first use of fire.  And biomass is still an important part of the world’s energy system; the use of traditional biomass—charcoal, firewood, and animal dung—in developing countries accounts for almost 10% of the world’s primary energy supply.

Bioenergy can be utilized in varied appications:

  • Biomass can be combusted to produce heat (large plants or localized biomass boilers), electricity, or used in combined heat and power (CHP) plants.
  • Biomass can also be used in combination with fossil fuels (co-firing) to improve efficiency and reduce the build up of combustion residues.
  • Biomass has potential to replace petroleum as a source for transportation fuels.

Biomass is also used in conjunction with fossil fuels for electricity generation in “waste-to-energy” projects. These are niche applications, which depend on the biomass having no other commercial value and being in close proximity to the application. For more information on waste to energy, please click here.

Why Biomass energy?

Biomass is an attractive energy source for a number of reasons:

  • Biomass is a renewable energy source generated through natural processes and as a byproduct of human activity.
  • It is also more evenly distributed over the earth's surface than fossil fuel energy sources, and may be harnessed using more cost effective technologies.
  • It provides us the opportunity to be more energy self-sufficient and helps to reduce climate change.
  • It helps farmers, ranchers and foresters better manage waste material, providing rural job opportunities and stimulating new economic opportunities.

Types of Biomass

Biomass is highly diverse in nature and classified on the basis of site of origin, as follows:

Sources of biomass

Field and plantation biomass

Industrial biomass

Forest biomass

Urban waste biomass

Aquatic biomass

Agricultural crop residues- Cobs, stalks, Straw, Cane thrashes and  etc

Edible matters from crops-Environmentally spoiled grains, pulses, fruits, nuts, spices, seeds and lint etc

Dedicated energy crops- Bamboo, Prosopis, Casuarinas, Willow and poplar etc 

Plantation debris- Leaves, stubbles, barks and trunks etc

Livestock wastes from fields, slaughter houses and animal husbandries etc 

Agro-industrial processed biomass and their wastes – Husk

Oil cake

Sugar bagasses

Sugar molasses,

Whey

Hides and skin wastes

Fruit and pulp debris Saw dust

Wood pulp and paper shavings

Fermented microbial mass etc

Timber

Log residues

Forest floor debris

Animal carcass

 

Municipal solid wastes

Sewage sludges

Kitchen and canteen wastes

Microalgae blooms

Sea weeds (E.g. Kelp)

Fresh water weeds (E.g. Water Hyacinth)

Dead fishes

Biomass Potential and Availability in India:

India is the 7th largest country in the world spanning 328 Million hectares and amply bestowed with renewable sources of energy.  It has been estimated that India produces about 450 million tonnes of biomass per year, of which about 200 million tonnes is surplus. Biomass tops the list in providing 32% of all the primary energy use in the country. The tables illustrated below shows the bioenergy potential of various crop residues in India.

Renewable Bio-Feedstocks in India and their Availability for Heat and Power Generation a 

Crop

 Residue

Biomass Produced (kT/Yr)

Power potential (MW)

Calorific potential (Mcal/sec)

Arecanut

Fronds

788.5

94

22.4

Arecanut

Husk

212.3

25

5.9

Arhar

Stalks

5120.2

609

145.4

Arhar

Husk

614.4

73

17.4

Bajra

Stalks

12039.4

1433

342.2

Bajra

Cobs

1986.5

236

56.3

Bajra

Husk

1805.9

215

51.3

Banana

Residue

11936.5

1421

339.4

Barley

Stalks

563.2

67

16

Barseem

Stalks

71.6

8

1.9

Black pepper

Stalks

29.1

3.5

0.8

Cardamom

Stalks

43.6

5

1.1

Cashew nut

Stalks

148.2

18

4.2

Cashew nut

Shell

41.2

4.5

1.0

Castor seed

Stalks

1657.2

197

47

Castor seed

Husk

41.4

5

1.1

Casuarina

Wood

211.8

25

5.9

Coconut

Fronds

7278.9

866

206.8

Coconut

Husk & pith

3184.7

379

90.5

Coconut

Shell

1321.9

157

374.9

Coffee

Pruning & wastes

1457.6

173

41.3

Coffee

Husk

133.4

16

3.8

Coriander

Stalks

188.3

22

5.2

Cotton

Stalk

31358.3

3733

891.6

Cotton

Husk

10789.1

1284

306.6

Cotton

Bollshell

10789.1

1284

30.6.6

Cow gram

Stalks

48.5

5.7

1.3

Cumin seed

Stalks

182.6

21.7

5.182

Dry chilly

Stalks

268.6

32

7.6

Castor seed

Husk

41.4

5

1.1

Groundnut

Shell

13148.2

1565

373.8

Groundnut

Stalks

1972.2

235

56.1

Guar

Stalks

233.3

28

6.7

Horse gram

Stalks

191.3

23

5.5

Jowar

Cobs

5043.5

600

143.3

Jowar

Stalks

17147.8

2041

487.4

Jowar

Husk

2017.4

240

57.3

Kesar

Stalks

9.4

1

0.23

Kodo millets

Stalks

3.13

0.4

0.95

Linseed

Stalks

86.3

10

2.3

Maize

Stalks

23421.3

2788

665.9

Maize

Cobs

3536.4

421

100.5

Masoor

Stalks

600.3

71.4

17.053

Meshta

Stalks

1605.4

191

456.1

Meshta

Leaves

40.1

5

1.1

Moong

Stalks

671

80

19.1

Moong

Husk

91.5

11

2.6

Moth

Stalks

17.8

2

0.47

Mustard

Stalks

6999

833

198.9

Mustard

Husk

1658.1

197

47.0

Niger seed

Stalks

94

11

2.6

Others

Others

0.34

0.04

0.009

Paddy

Straw

149646.9

17815

4255

Paddy

Husk

19995.9

2380

568.4

Paddy

Stalks

322.3

38

9.0

Peas & beans

Stalks

27.4

3.2

0.764

Potato

Leaves

832.5

99

23.6

Potato

Stalks

54.8

6.5

1.5

Pulses

Stalks

1390.4

165

39.4

Ragi

Straw

2630.2

313

74.7

Rubber

Primary wood

1495.3

178

42.5

Rubber

Secondary wood

996.9

118

28.1

Safflower

Stalks

539.3

64

15.2

Sunnhemp

Stalks

14.1

1.6

0.382

Sawan

Stalks

0.22

0.02

0.004

Small millets

Stalks

600.1

71.4

17

Soyabean

Stalks

9940.2

1183

282.5

Sugarcane

Tops & leaves

12143.9

1445

345.1

Sunflower

Stalks

1407.6

167

39.8

Sweet potato

Stalks

12.8

1.5

0.358

Tapioca

Stalks

3959

471

112.4

Tea

Sticks

909.8

108

25.7

Til

Stalks

1207.7

144

34.3

Tobacco

Stalks

204.8

24.3

5.8

Turmeric

Stalks

32.3

4

0.955

Urad

Stalks

782.6

93

22.2

     Total -511041.39  

a Estimations are approximated for a unit megawatt (MW) power plant

Potential of Various Cellulosic Feed stocks in India for  Ethanol Production

S.No

Agro-feedstock

Ethanol yield (L/Kg)

Biomass surplus availability (kT/Yr)

Projected yield of ethanol (Million litres)

1

Barley stalk

0.31

563

174.5

2

Corn stalk

0.29

23421

6792

3

Rice straw

0.28

149646

41900.8

4

Sorghum stalk

0.27

17147

4629.6

5

Wheat straw

0.29

105000

30450

6

Sugarcane bagasse

0.28

162000

45360

     Potential of Different Oilseeds and Trees of India for biodiesel production b 

S.No

Oilseed crop

Average oil yield (kg/ha)

Biodiesel potential (kg)

1

Castor

1045

940.5

2

Groundnut

921

829.3

3

Mustard

409.5

368

4

Sunflower

530

477

5

Safflower

408

367.2

6

Rapeseed

394.5

355

7

Soybean

307

276.3

8

Linseed

725

652.5

9

Niger

122

109.8

10

Sesame

566

509.4

11

Cotton

190

171

12

Jatropha

1200

1080

Potential of Tree Borne Oil seeds in India

 

Tree

Total oil potential (tonnes)

Projected biodiesel volume (tonnes)

13

Sal (Shorea robusta)

744000

669600

14

Mahua (Madhuca indica)

182000

163800

15

Neem (Azadirachta indica)

100000

90000

16

Rubber (Hevea braziliensis)

35000

31500

17

Karanja (Pongamia pinnata)

30,000

27000

18

Kusum (Schleichera oleosa)

15000

13500

19

Khakan (Salvadora oleoides)

14000

12600

20

Undi (Calophyllum inophyllum)

7000

6300

21

Dhupa (Vateria indica)

2000

1800

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 Estimations are made on theoretical conversion of vegetable oils to methyl fatty esters (Biodiesel) at 90% efficiency. In case of oilseeds from trees, oil is assumed to be used only for biodiesel production. 


India Biomass Energy