Energy can be recovered from the organic fraction of waste (biodegradable as well as non- biodegradable) through thermo-chemical and biochemical methods. Incineration of RDF pellets for power generation and biomethanation are currently the preferred technologies for MSW to energy in India.
Some emerging technologies such as fermentation, plasma pyrolysis, microwave waste destruction and laser waste destruction exist and are at various stages of commercial uptake. These merit a continuing review to assess their relevance for possible application to the treatment of specific waste types under Indian conditions.
The pathways illustrating the primary MSW to energy technologies are highlighted below: